Re: [cc65] HIMEM used for stack on the c64? (Internal.txt) / moving upper memory down from $CFFF/

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From: Groepaz (
Date: 2003-03-07 01:59:54

On Friday 07 March 2003 01:34, Greg Long wrote:
> Am I [mis]interpreting this to mean that on the 64, the program stack
> (not the 6510 stack) is placed in HIMEM which is $E000-$FFFF, underneath
> the KERNAL ROM?  Or is it rather that it starts at the top of what is
> normally the free memory - at $CFFF and grows down.

the latter. the standard c64 configuration has the kernal banked in (and basic 
banked out), so $0800-$cfff is available for the c-program.

> This raises the question, how can we set this upper $CFFF lower.  This
> will be important for our game so that we can use the hi-res screen and
> sprite data.

you can write your custom linker configuration.... look at c64.cfg and 
ld65.txt :)

you may also have a look at the tgi graphics interface (depending on what 
kinda gfx you want to use ofcoz).

maybe you can also answer yourself a bunch of questions by looking at my 
tetris source on the ftp. it has (almost) everything a simple game 
"testapplication" for future bigger game project actually :) (it should also 
give you a couple of hints on how to do certain things without c64 specific 

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