This document describes how to build your programs using the cc65 development tools and the GNU Make utility.
The cc65 development package doesn't come with a make utility. However this is no issue because GNU Make works very nicely with cc65.
GNU Make is a both very powerful and very popular make utility. It might even be called the de facto standard for make utilities. For more information see the GNU Make home page:
The cc65 development package is available as binaries for several host systems and can easily built for quite some additional systems. The very same is true for GNU Make so a cc65-based project coming with a GNU Make Makefile can easily be built by any cc65 developer no matter what host system is used.
Because of the strong alignment of the cc65 compiler with the ISO C standard it is very well feasible to compile a single C code base both with the cc65 compiler and other C compilers like for example GCC. GNU Make turns out to be very well suited to build projects for several target systems using multiple compilers as it isn't tied to any C compiler.
This Makefile is a fully functional sample for compiling several C sources
bar.c) and link the resulting object files into an
executable program (here
SOURCES = foo.c bar.c PROGRAM = foobar ifdef CC65_TARGET CC = $(CC65_HOME)/bin/cl65 CFLAGS = -t $(CC65_TARGET) --create-dep $(<:.c=.d) -O LDFLAGS = -t $(CC65_TARGET) -m $(PROGRAM).map else CC = gcc CFLAGS = -MMD -MP -O LDFLAGS = -Wl,-Map,$(PROGRAM).map endif ######################################## .SUFFIXES: .PHONY: all clean all: $(PROGRAM) ifneq ($(MAKECMDGOALS),clean) -include $(SOURCES:.c=.d) endif %.o: %.c $(CC) -c $(CFLAGS) -o $@ $< $(PROGRAM): $(SOURCES:.c=.o) $(CC) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ $^ clean: $(RM) $(SOURCES:.c=.o) $(SOURCES:.c=.d) $(PROGRAM) $(PROGRAM).map
Important: When using the sample Makefile above via copy & paste it is necessary to replace the eight spaces at the beginning of command lines (lines 26, 29 and 32) with a tab character (ASCII code 9).
Without any specific configuration the sample Makefile will compile and link
using GCC. In order to rather use cc65 the variable
CC65_TARGET needs to be
defined. This may by done as an environment variable or simply as part of the
Makefile. However to quickly switch between compilers and/or cc65 targets it is
best done on the GNU Make command line like this:
The sample Makefile presumes the variable
CC65_HOME to point to the
directory cc65 is located in. Again there are several ways to define this
variable but as its value typically won't change often it is best done as an
environment variable. On Windows the cc65 .exe installer package takes care
of creating a
CC65_HOME environment variable.
Most parts of the sample Makefile follow the guidelines in the GNU Make Manual that can be searched online for background information. The automatic generation of dependency however rather works as described by the GNU Make maintainer Paul D. Smith in "Advanced Auto-Dependencies". Fortunately both GCC and cc65 directly support this method in the meantime.
The recommended way to use GNU Make on Windows is to install it as part of a Cygwin environment. For more information see the Cygwin home page:
If however installing Cygwin shouldn't be an option for one or the other reason then the sample Makefile may be invoked from the Windows Command Prompt (cmd.exe) by downloading the following programs:
The very limited resources of the cc65 target machines now and then require
manual optimization of the build process by compiling individual source files
with different compiler options. GNU Make offers
Target-specific Variable Values
perfectly suited for doing so. For example placing the code of the two modules
bar in the segment
FOOBAR can be achieved with this
target-specific variable definition:
foo.o bar.o: CFLAGS += --code-name FOOBAR